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Commonly used flavor and fragrance introduction

Flavors and fragrances can make food fragrance, enhance appetite, digestion and absorption, increase the variety of food color, improve food quality, can also restore food fragrance, strengthen the characteristics of taste,; also has the function of sterilization, antiseptic.


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  Food spices


  Definition.


  Can be used to blend edible flavors, and make food fragrance substances.


  Effects.


  Not only can enhance appetite, favorable digestion and absorption, but also increase the variety of food color, improve food quality, has an important role.


  Features.


  Is a special class of food additives, many varieties, small amounts, mostly in natural foods.


  Classification.


  Natural flavors, natural equivalent flavors, artificial flavors


  Natural equivalent spices and artificial spices belong to the category of synthetic spices.


  Natural flavors


  Natural flavor: purely physical methods from natural aromatic plants or animal raw materials isolated from the substance, usually considered safe.


  Animal (musk, beaver incense, muskrat incense) plant (white orchid oil, rosehip oil, etc.)


  a. Spice (Spice), b. Essential oil (Essential Oil), c. Tincture (Tincture), d. Infusion (Concrete), e. Fragrance resin (Resinoid), f. Net oil (Absolute), g. Oleoresin (Oleoresin)


  1


  Aromatic spices


  A variety of plant whole herbs, leaves, roots, stems, bark, fruits or seeds with special aroma, fragrance and taste, such as cinnamon, fennel and pepper, are used to enhance the flavor of food. Because most of them are used in cooking, they are also called "spices". Many spices have been used for thousands of years. There are no toxicity problems within the normal range of use.


  According to the American Spices Association (American Spices Association) definition: "Any plant used primarily for food flavoring can be called a spice."


  2


  Essential Oil


  The mixture of terpenes, alicyclic, aliphatic, etc. extracted from different parts of aromatic plants (such as buds, fruits, seeds, roots, stems, leaves, bark, etc.) or secretions as raw materials, using methods such as pressing, cold grinding, extraction, water steam distillation, adsorption, etc., is called essential oil.


  Amyl alcohol, Hexyl alcohol - flower buds


  Ethanol, propanol - phenolic compounds


  Toluene - essential oil containing aromatic compounds


  Chlorinated solvents - containing amine compounds


  There are more than 3000 varieties of essential oils in the world, of which about hundreds have commercial value and about a hundred are suitable for food. Among the various essential oils, cinnamon oil produced in China occupies an important position in the world market


  3


  Tincture


  With a certain concentration of ethanol, at room temperature to extract natural animal secretions or plant fruits, seeds, rhizomes, etc. and after cooling, clarification, filtering the products obtained is called tincture.


  4


  Infusion


  Using volatile solvents (such as petroleum ether) to extract the soluble material of the spice plant tissue, and finally degreasing, concentration of the paste obtained is called the infusion.


  Jasmine infusion, osmanthus infusion, tuberose infusion, lily of the valley infusion, ink red infusion.


  5


  Fragrance resin


  5, fragrance resin.


  With organic solvent leaching spice plant exuded with fragrant ingredients of resin-like secretions, and finally by removing the solvent and water used in the product is called fragrance resin.


  6


  Net oil


  Plant infusion (or balsam, balsam resin and water steam distillation method to obtain essential oil after the extract of distilled water containing fragrance), re-extracted with ethanol and then remove the solvent and get high purity products. There are also by freezing, filtering out insoluble in ethanol waxes, fats and terpenoids and all other substances, and then under reduced pressure and low temperature after steaming ethanol obtained after the substance is highly concentrated, completely alcohol-soluble liquid fragrance, called net oil.


  Such as rose net oil.


  7


  Oleoresin


  With organic solvents to extract spices after removing the solvent and a class of natural flavors, is a viscous liquid. The main components are essential oils, pungent ingredients, pigments and resins, sometimes also contains non-volatile oils and some sugars. Oleoresin is a concentrate of the active ingredients of natural spices, and its concentration is about 10 times that of the spice raw materials. Such as black pepper oleoresin, chili oleoresin, pepper oleoresin, garlic oleoresin, ginger oleoresin, etc. Oleoresin belongs to the category of infusion.


  Natural equivalent spices


  Substances obtained by chemical synthesis or natural aromatic raw materials separated by chemical processes. These substances are chemically identical to those present in natural products for human consumption (whether processed or not). There are many varieties of these fragrances, which make up the majority of edible flavors and are important for the formulation of edible flavors.


  Artificial flavors


  Artificial flavor is in the natural products for human consumption (whether processed or not) has not been found in the flavor substances. Such spices are less varieties, are made of chemical synthesis, and its chemical structure has not been found in nature, based on this, the safety of such spices cause great concern. In China, where included in GT/T14156 "food spices and codes" in the spices, are certain toxicological evaluation, and is considered harmless to humans in certain dose conditions. With the continuous development of science and technology and people's understanding, some of the original species of artificial spices, found in natural foods exist, and thus can be classified as natural equivalent spices. For example, China's permission to use the artificial flavor of allyl hexanoate, the international community has now been changed to the natural equivalent of spices.


  Food flavoring


  Food flavoring (aroma), in addition to cooking, the use of spices alone is not much, because the unique flavor of a variety of food is the formation of many flavor components complement each other, such as chicken flavor components up to 220, peanut 350, cocoa 323, coffee 450. Single spices simply can not make people in the senses to get satisfactory results, so people use different spices to imitate the natural flavor. This gave rise to edible flavors.


  Definition.


  Edible flavor is a mixture of aromatic substances, solvents or carriers and certain food additives with a certain fragrance and concentration.


  Composition of flavors.


  Aromatic substances: that is, the aforementioned natural flavors, natural equivalent spices and artificial flavors


  Main fragrance body: the main body that shows the characteristics of the fragrance.


  Auxiliary agent: adjust the aroma fragrance, so that become fresh and elegant.


  Fixed fragrance agent: adjust the volatility of the components in the spice blend, maintain the aroma and fragrance.


  Diluent: can be edible ethanol, distilled water, propylene glycol, refined edible oil and glyceryl triacetate, etc.. The content usually accounts for more than 50%, these solvents can make the flavor into a homogeneous product and achieve the required concentration.


  Carrier: It can be sucrose, glucose, dextrin, table salt, SiO2, etc., which are mainly used in powdered edible flavors by adsorption or spray drying. The edible flavor can be liquid or slurry in form, or powder.


  Classification of edible flavors


  1


  Classification by application


  Beverage, confectionery, baked food, wine, seasoning, convenience food, soup, tea


  2


  Classification by flavor type


  Citrus flavors (such as sweet orange, lemon flavor, etc.), fruit flavors (such as banana, grass poison flavor, etc.), mint flavors (such as peppermint, lisianthus flavor, etc.), soy flavors (such as vanilla, coffee flavor, etc.), spicy flavors (such as nutmeg, cinnamon flavor, etc.), dairy flavors (such as milk, white off, cheese flavor), meat flavors (such as beef, chicken, fish flavor), nut flavors (such as almond, peanut, etc.), wine flavor, vegetable flavor, baking flavor


  3


  Classification by spice composition


  Monomeric fragrances.


  Usually refers to menthol, vanillin and other fragrances with a single chemical composition. From the point of view of no artificial blend, people sometimes will also be essential oils and other natural flavors called monomeric fragrances. Monomeric fragrances are only used directly as fragrances in certain special cases, often as raw materials for blending fragrances.


  Blending fragrances.


  Because the aroma of a single compound is difficult to meet the actual requirements, and therefore people often will be a variety of raw materials after clever combination, formulated to meet the requirements of certain purposes of the fragrance.


  According to the classification of the dosage form can be divided into liquid (including emulsion, paste) and solid (including powder, block).


  4


  Classified by performance


  That is, according to the organization of food and production process conditions are classified differently.


  Water-soluble flavors.


  Also known as water quality flavors. Will be a variety of natural or synthetic spices blended into the fragrance base, and then dissolved in 40 ~ 60% of ethanol (or propylene glycol and other water-soluble solvents), if necessary, and then add tinctures, extracts or juice, etc. made.


  Features: transparently dissolved or evenly dispersed in the general dosage range, with a light head of fragrance, aroma, but sensitive to heat


  Applicable: Food products with water as medium, such as soft drinks, fruit dew, ice cream on a stick, ice cream, wine, etc.


  Oil soluble flavor.


  Also known as oil flavor, is a common edible flavor, with a variety of spices and fragrance additives modulated into the fragrance base by adding refined vegetable oils, glycerin propylene glycol and other diluents, formulated into soluble flavors.


  Features: strong aroma, long-lasting, high fragrance concentration, relatively non-volatile, with a strong sense of fragrance body fragrance rhyme


  Applicable: Higher temperature operation process of food fragrance, such as candy, cookies and pastries


  Orange flavoring.


  Lemon oil 63g, orange oil 24.8g, cinnamon oil 10.6g, other 1.6g


  Emulsified flavoring.


  The oil flavor is made by adding appropriate emulsifier, stabilizer and pigment to make it disperse as particles in water, generally O/W type. The effect of emulsification can inhibit the volatilization of the flavor, can make the oil-soluble flavoring agent dissolved in water, reducing costs. The emulsifier usually uses the natural gum of gum Arabic.


  Features: the appearance of the emulsion, mild aroma, fragrance preservation effect, and because of its dispersion in water to produce turbidity effect, can be added to the coloring agent. However, it has poor stability over time and should be prevented from spoilage.


  Applicable: Juice and fruit-flavored beverages that need turbidity, etc. It can make the appearance of beverages close to natural juice.


  Emulsified orange flavoring.


  Emulsified orange oil 460g, coriander oil 5g, cinnamon oil 50g, gum Arabic 340g, lemon oil 55g


  Powdered flavor.


  Powder flavor is made by using lactose type substance as a stretcher and attaching the fragrance base to the stretcher surface after mixing.


  Features: easy to use, strong stability over time, easy to absorb moisture and caking, to prevent corruption and deterioration


  Microencapsulated flavors.


  Preparation method: The fragrance base is first made into emulsified fragrance and then spray dried into powder.


  Features: spices are surrounded by excipients cover, stability, dispersion is better. Fragrance in the easy to oxidize, volatile aromatic substances, can play a good role in the protection, to extend the shelf life of flavored products.


  Applicable: Powdered food flavoring, such as solid drinks, jelly powder


  Meat flavoring.


  Meat flavoring and dish type flavoring, used for artificial meat and various soup, convenience food


  The main raw materials for preparation are generally lipids, carbohydrates and amino acids, proteins, heterocyclic compounds to expand some spices


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