The ingredients of hand soap generally contain natural plant ingredients such as surfactants, pure glycerin, aloe vera and sea buckthorn oil.
1) Surfactants Surfactants are one of the main raw materials of hand soap, and their main function is to remove oil and dirt from hands, and they are required to be non-irritating and low irritating to skin, and can be naturally degraded in the environment, and the degraded products are harmless to the environment. The general principle of selecting surfactants is to balance detergency and safety protection. On the one hand, we should choose surfactants with strong oil removal and decontamination ability to quickly remove oil and dirt; on the other hand, we should take into account that hand skin is alive, delicate and sensitive, and is vulnerable to chemical damage. In hand soap formulations, anionic surfactants with strong detergency are generally chosen as the main surfactants, and amphoteric surfactants and nonionic surfactants are used as co-surfactants.
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The more commonly used anionic surfactants are: fatty alcohol polyoxyethylene ether sulfate (AES or AESA), a-alkenyl sulfonate (AOS) and sodium sec-alkyl sulfonate (SAS), sodium dodecyl sulfate (K12), etc.; AES is an excellent surfactant with good decontamination, emulsification, wetting and foaming properties, and has a certain degree of hard water resistance, and is less irritating to human skin. SAS is also commonly used as human skin cleanser, with good foam and low irritation, and can replace part of AES; K12 has good decontamination, emulsification, foaming, penetration and dispersion properties, and biodegrades quickly.
As auxiliary surfactants, amphoteric surfactants usually have good bactericidal effect, good compatibility with anionic surfactants and nonionic surfactants, rich and stable foam, good softness, low irritation to skin, good biodegradability, and good viscosity adjustment. Commonly used amphoteric surfactants include coconut alkyl amidopropyl betaine (CAB), dodecyl dimethyl amine oxide (OB-2), etc. OB-2 is similar to the structure of the amine group of the natural moisturizing factor in the skin, which is soft to the skin and can alleviate the damage to the skin caused by some anionic surfactants, and has the characteristics of thickening, foaming and foam stabilization, good biodegradability and good viscosity adjustment.
Commonly used nonionic surfactants: coconut oil monoethanolamide, alkyl alcohol amide (6501), etc. 6501 has good compatibility with anionic surfactants and amphoteric surfactants. 6501 dissolves completely in water to become a transparent liquid, with the characteristics of thickening aqueous solutions, and has the role of stabilizing the foam of other surfactants and significantly suspending dirt.
2) emollient moisturizer emollient moisturizer is also an essential component of hand sanitizer, which can leave a protective film after the evaporation of water on the skin surface to prevent or slow down the loss of water inside the skin and maintain the wetness of the skin. Usually choose alcohols with large relative molecular weight, soluble in water and high boiling point, such as liquid paraffin, glycerin, ethylene glycol, sorbitol, propylene glycol and alkyl glycosides; water-soluble lanolin is also an effective skin care agent, this hydrophilic substance has good emolliency and conditioning properties, it can maintain the oil balance of the skin, reduce the dryness of the skin, have a good pain-reducing and anti-inflammatory effect on the skin, with many It has good compatibility with many skin care and cleansing agents, and has good stability to acids, bases and electrolytes. However, the high content of emollient will make the product sticky, and at the same time will reduce the decontamination ability of the product, and has the effect of defoaming, so the amount added should not be too much, generally at 1% to 3%.
3) thickener thickener is also known as viscosity regulator, hand sanitizer with a certain viscosity can improve the appearance of the product, so that the product has a certain degree of stability; more commonly used thickener is inorganic salts, such as NaCl, NH4Cl and KCl, etc., NaCl as a thickener, its cheap, thickening effect is good, easy to use; sodium chloride by shielding the charged groups of ionic surfactants to reduce By shielding the charged groups of ionic surfactants, NaCl can reduce the mutual repulsion, which is conducive to the growth of micelles and increase the viscosity of the system; when NaCl and 6501 are used together in the system, the viscosity of the system will increase due to the synergistic effect of "amide group" and electrolyte. NH4Cl thickening effect is better, but the scope of adjustment is narrower, a little carelessness will affect the quality of the product. Also can use polymer poly and as thickening agent, such as PVP, PVA and PAA, etc.. Alkanolamide can also be used as a thickening agent, alkanolamide has a washing effect and stabilization of foam.
4) pH regulator human skin pH 5.5~6.5, acidic, usually can add citric acid to adjust the product to neutral or weak acidity, close to the pH of human skin, so as to avoid the irritation of the skin. In addition, citric acid also has good decontamination ability and hard water resistance, easy biodegradation, will not cause environmental pollution.
5) germicidal preservative in order to prevent and inhibit the growth of bacteria, the product has a certain storage period, it is necessary to add a certain amount of germicidal preservative in the hand sanitizer. Should choose non-toxic, non-irritating to the skin, light color and inexpensive preservatives, commonly used are sodium benzoate, carbolic acid, methylchloroisothiazolinone, paraben and Kaisone. Nipagin A, B, C, butyl is a highly effective antiseptic and bactericidal agent for food and medicine, non-irritating to the skin, the choice of nipagin methyl ester and nipagin ethyl ester or nipagin propyl ester and nipagin butyl ester used in conjunction, they have good additive and synergistic, and good compatibility with other raw materials of hand sanitizer.
6) Appearance regulators are added to hand sanitizer with appropriate pigments and flavors to make people wash their hands to achieve both cleanliness and to maintain a pleasant mood. Generally, you can choose fruit fragrance, floral fragrance or fresh fragrance to adjust the aroma. There are many grades and varieties of flavors, which can be selected accordingly according to the grade of the hand sanitizer product. A pleasing color will also add a lot of charm to the product, for this reason, it is usually necessary to add a certain amount of pigment, the choice of color should be soft, warm and bright, often choose orange, pink, sky blue or light green. Hand sanitizer can be made transparent hand sanitizer and pearlescent hand sanitizer, pearlescent hand sanitizer is the use of pearlescent pulp in the product to produce a pearlescent effect, so that the hand sanitizer has a silky look and feel, while the pearlescent pulp also has to increase the viscosity of the product, moisturize the skin and anti-static effect.
7) Anti-hard water agent for hand soap in hard water also has a better washing effect, a small amount of chelating agent can be added in the formula to improve the product's hard water resistance, often using EDTA-2Na or citric acid, whose performance is milder.
In order to reduce the slippery phenomenon of hand soap in the washing process and increase the sense of skin washing, a certain amount of slip reducing agent can be added to the formula. c18~20 anionic surfactants can locally form a larger surface tension in the hand soap to reduce the slippery feeling in the washing process, which can be used as a mild performance as a slip reducing agent.
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